Intoe-ing or “Pigeon-toed” is a reasonably common condition. Intoe-ing can cause clumsiness, tripping and falling. It can also cause leg and foot pain often dismissed as “growing pains.”

In our first 6 years of life, our leg bones undergo a series of rotational changes.

We start off with our legs rotated inwards making it look like this:

Normal infant leg rotation Normal infant leg rotation


Our legs then continue to de-rotate as we pass developmental milestones such as crawling and progressing to standing and walking. By the time we reach 2 and a half the leg should look something like this – reasonably straight with a mild flat arch:

Normal leg rotation Normal leg rotation


At the age of six the legs resemble the child’s adult legs and not much rotational changes occur after that.

There are cases in which the de-rotation of the leg bones are delayed and this results in intoeing.


Fortunately, most cases are treatable but the treatment needs to be customised per child depending on severity.

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